Medications, hormonal influences, and other factors such as sunlight have all been implicated in disease exacerbation.
Normally, early complement factors, such as C1q, bind cellular debris from apoptotic cells, which facilitate phagocytosis by macrophages.
Deficiency of such complement factors is an independent risk factor for the development of SLE .
SLE can affect the periorbita, ocular adnexa, eye, and optic nerve.
The most common association is keratoconjunctivitis sicca, while the most visually devastating sequelae occur secondary to optic nerve involvement and retinal vaso-occlusion.
Multiple “steroid-sparing” treatment options exist with the most recently studied being biologic agents.