To fill the vacuum left by the Egyptian withdrawal, a culturally distinct indigenous Kushite kingdom emerged at al-Karmah, near present-day Dongola.After Egyptian power revived during the New Kingdom (c.1570–1100 BC), the pharaoh Ahmose I incorporated Kush as an Egyptian ruled province governed by a viceroy.Egypt also expected tribute in gold and slaves from local Kushite chiefs.
Egyptian governors particularly valued gold in Nubia and soldiers in the pharaoh's army.
Egyptian military expeditions penetrated Kush periodically during the Old Kingdom.
The modern Republic of Sudan was formed in 1956 and inherited its boundaries from Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, established in 1899.
For times predating 1899, usage of the term "Sudan" for the territory of the Republic of Sudan was somewhat anachronistic, and may have referred to the more diffuse concept of the Sudan.
The temples remained centers of official religious worship until the coming of Christianity to the region during the sixth century.