Such decisions on where things are in space with respect to one another and the actual location of the individual, however, do not necessarily depend on an allocentric representation. Allocentric and egocentric updating of spatial memories. For example, we could also remember, based on our past experience, that our goal is present 50 and 30° to the right of our current position, which would be an egocentric form of spatial judgment (Figures 1A, B; see also Wolbers and Wiener, 2014).
This extended the conceptualization of an allocentric representation to the idea that these representations also involve some of the metric properties of cartographic maps themselves. doi: 10.1016/20 Pubmed Abstract | Pubmed Full Text | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Moscovitch, M., Rosenbaum, R.
Critically, this includes the idea that cognitive maps involve a fundamental Euclidean metric framework (O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978; Gallistel, 1990), suggesting that objects are accurately represented both according to their distance and angular relationships, akin to how they are in the real world (O’Keefe and Nadel, 1978).
In one widely cited and discussed example of our spatial representations differ from cartographic maps, Stevens and Coupe (1978) asked participants to indicate which cities from a list were further west. Place navigation impaired in rats with hippocampal lesions. doi: 10.1038/297681a0 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Moscovitch, M., Nadel, L., Winocur, G., Gilboa, A., and Rosenbaum, R.
Although participants made many of these judgments correctly, one particular error occurred for decisions involving Reno and San Diego (Reno is further west due to the geography of the U. Participants consistently indicated that San Diego was further west, suggesting that category heuristics (that California is further west than Nevada) overode actual metric Euclidean knowledge of maps.
The process of extracting information from our environment can be quite rapid, particularly if we can view useful features, like landmarks, by scanning the environment (Ishikawa and Montello, 2006; Wolbers and Wiener, 2014); it can also take time, depending on the size of the environment (Siegel and White, 1975).